In the summer months (June, July & August) bring light cottons, T-shirts or other loose tops and some kind of cap for your head - anything that provides protection from those punishing sun rays. During the winter months in central Spain a warm overcoat and gloves will be needed to protect you from sometimes fierce cold and winds. Otherwise, no special recommendations are necessary. In July it’s not uncommon for the temperature to reach 40° C (100° F) and in January at night the temperature can drop well below freezing. Its is also important to keep in mind that Madrid is fundamentally a dry city, and that means that hot or cold weather is much more bearable than if it were a humid city. For instance, 25° C (77° F) on a dry day in Madrid is a very comfortable temperature.
Madrid is not as relaxed as most coastal areas where shorts and sandals are concerned, but not so rigid that you'll look out of place if this is your choice of summer clothing. Madrileños are well accustomed to seeing tourists in shorts. In coastal areas shorts and sandals are an absolute must. If you're coming on a business trip, dress correctly for business - the Spanish will appreciate it, even if they themselves are jacket and tie-less.
Spring and autumn are the most pleasant times of the year to visit Madrid. The days are generally warm and the nights cool. The nightlife goes up a notch, as the warmth seems to get the blood (and beer) flowing. Large numbers of young people take to the streets for the all-night 'marcha' and all the outdoor cafes open up. Rain is not uncommon at this time of the year, and days are often quite windy.
Smoking is popular in Spain, having only recently been banned on the Metro in Madrid (a ban which is still not respected on the platforms). Don't be surprised if you go out for a meal with Spanish friends and they light up even between courses.
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